Tag Archives: University of Chicago

MRSA superbug: a global concern

There is an increasing amount of news coverage on the superbug, which is also known as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). But how much do you really know? Here, I will talk about the reason why we should be concerned about the spread.MRSA trend

The history of this bacteria, Staph. aureus, can be traced back to the Egyptian mummies, which historians had recovered pathological changes that are consistent with staphalococcal osteomyelitis. Staph. aureus can be found in 20% to 45% of normal healthy adults. In the hospital-associated cases, serious infection is often caused by the bleach of protection. For example, the skin barrier protection is disrupted after going through an invasive surgery, which allows the colonization of Staph. aureus in tissues.

The concern of MRSA grows as the healthcare community now faces with strains of Staph. aureus that are equipped with methicillin and vancomycin resistance genes.

If you look at the timeline (from Nature Magazine), shortly after the introduction of penicillin in the 1940s, some strains of Staph. aureus were already found to have penicillinase/resistance to penicillin. And if you look at when methicillin is introduced to treat Staph. aureus infection, you can see that methicillin resistant strains can be found shortly after the introduction. Typically, vancomycin is used as a last resort due to its toxicity. But the resistance of vancomycin is also emerging.

Are we running out of options to treat Staph. aureus infection? Not now. But if we don’t take action soon to accelerate the antibiotics discovery, we will run out of options when vancomycin resistant strains dominate.

Brief Guide to PhD Applications

Applying to doctoral programs can be an extremely stressful task, especially since each university has its own guidelines and requirements. Given the wide-ranging requirements by different programs, it is impossible to provide an all-encompassing guide to applications. This short guide, however, is an attempt at providing assistance to those interested in pursuing higher education. I treated my applications as a “course”. That is, I spent an average of 10-15 hours per week working on applications, writing, re-writing, editing, and perfecting each application. My mentors were immensely helpful in paring down my work, but my friends were crucial during this process. We set up “PhD Dates”  at cafes or somebody’s apartment, ordered food, and made sure we were productive.  After all, Downton Abbey and Game of Thrones repeats were a great distraction.

I applied to nine academic programs in Fall 2012, all in the Humanities. Five programs admitted me, and I accepted the University of Chicago’s Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

Letters of Recommendation (began process in August):

I found it appropriate to ask three individuals who could speak to and emphasize three very different but important qualities about me. It is a bit daunting (and sometimes embarrassing) to approach a professor or teacher to ask for a letter of recommendation. What exactly is the best method of asking, “Professor, can you write a letter about how awesome I am?”

First, I chose the three people I thought would provide the fullest “picture” of who I am as an individual and as an academic. The initial email, which I sent in August (about four months prior to the first deadlines), requested a meeting to discuss my future and to receive advice. I prepared packets (although incomplete) with my curriculum vitae, a copy of my writing sample, a draft of my personal (academic) statement, and a list of potential programs and application due dates. These packets were prepared in the hopes that if my professor agreed to write a letter, I could immediately provide application information.

My undergraduate professor from Cal State Northridge, my language instructor from UChicago, and my Master’s thesis advisor from UChicago were the three people I approached to write letters of recommendation. Though I did not see all of the letters, I know that each wrote about my strengths from the experience they had working with me. This was vital, since three repetitive letters would have been pointless.  Every 4-6 weeks leading up to the December and January deadlines, I would email or meet them in person to discuss the progress of each application (i.e. whether they had started their letters, how I could improve my CV or statement).

 Networking (ongoing September-November):

The most important (and difficult!) part of this process was meeting every professor I mentioned in my applications.  I made it a point to visit many campuses (yes, I traveled quite a bit), and I went to many conferences with the knowledge that the professors I wanted to work with would be at those conferences.

Much like I did with my recommenders, I wrote a personalized email to each professor.  Writing personalized emails proved useful in November when two professors from different universities forwarded each other the emails I had sent them. This could have proved quite embarrassing had I sent them the same email.

In each email, I outlined my academic trajectory, but mostly focused on soliciting advice on my work.  I also asked them questions regarding their published and ongoing work.  This was the most time-consuming part of the application process, since I researched each professor and made sure they would be somebody I could work with for an extended length of time.

 Curriculum Vitae:

The easiest aspect of the application was refining my curriculum vitae. I began it as an undergraduate and continued adding to it through my Master’s program. The most troubling aspect of the CV was the order (education; presentations; publications etc). Some applications only allowed a one-page CV, so I would agonize over which sections to cut. The link to my current CV is below, and this CV is (almost) the same as the one I submitted to most doctoral programs: http://augustsamie.com/cv/

Writing Sample:

The first thing I noticed about each application was that the lengths of the writing sample varied (anything from 10 pages to 30 pages).  I had three substantial papers that I produced during the first year of my MA that I thought of using for my applications.  Each paper had strengths (and unfortunately weaknesses!). The first paper had little to do with my interests as an academic, but was (as I was told by a professor) very convincing and well written. The second paper was completely in accordance with what I proposed researching as a doctoral student, but it was, I felt, not as well researched nor as credible as the first.  The third paper, which I ultimately submitted, needed some work, but had aspects that exemplified what I am capable of doing as an academic. I spent the next two months refining it, but it already encompassed one critical aspect that the other two papers did not: my language capabilities.  I had produced this paper using secondary sources in multiple languages.

Personal Statement:

I found writing a personal statement to be impossible at first, but once I began approaching it as a puzzle, it turned into an entertaining experience.  My first draft was commented on by at least ten people, each with their own opinions on what should be added or omitted. With all the comments in hand, I proceeded to write more than six versions of my personal statement.  Since the information in my statement is private, I will not provide a draft here. The following outline is of the points made in each paragraph.

Paragraph 1:  describe how my family background led to inquiries of race and religion in Central Asia; what activities increased and informed my knowledge of my proposed area of research

Paragraph 2: discuss my arrival at the University of Chicago for my Master’s; explain briefly my thesis and theoretical approach for my MA thesis

Paragraph 3: explain how my travels through Russia and Central Asia have helped form my opinions on my research; my contacts have helped provide indispensable sources

Paragraph 4 and 5: what I am proposing to do as a doctoral student; my theoretical approaches; current scholarship on the subject and the gap my research will fill; why my research will be important

Paragraph 6: “history lesson” (remember, there are people on the acceptance committees who know nothing about your proposed area of research, so it is important to provide a brief “lesson”); after providing three of four concise sentences about your focus, tie it to your research; how and where will your research add to what we know

Paragraph 7:  discuss the professors you intend on working with at the institution (mention you have met them); explain that your language skills will help in working with sources; make clear that this institution is essential for you to continue your research because of the professors and the resources at the institution.

ЧИКАГО УНИВЕРСИТЕТИ (The University of Chicago)


Чикаго Университетининг афзалликлари

1979 йилдан буён 13 та профессорга буюк илмий изланишлари учун Нобел мукофоти берилган. Жами бўлиб 87 та талаба, тадқиқотчи ва профессорлар илмий изланишлари учун  тақдирланганлар.  Шу сабабдан, бу ерда талабалар энг машҳур шахслар билан ӯқиш имкониятига эга бӯлади.

Чикагода бир неча ажойиб кашфиётлар қилинган.  Масалан, 1931 йилда Субраманян Чандрасекар қора туйнук мавжудлигини исботлаб берган. Джанет Роулий 1970 йилларда саратон касаллиги ота-онадан фарзандга ӯтишлигини исботлаб берган. Ундан ташқари, Джеймс Уотсон 1953 йилда ДНК структурасини кашф қилган.

Университет ресурслари

Чикаго Университетида ҳар хил талаба мавжуд. Шу сабабдан, университетда юзлаб тӯгараклар фаолият юргизади. Улардан, бештачи талабаларнинг ҳаётини яхшиланиш учун мўлжалланган. Шу сабабдан айтиш мумкинки, университетнинг “кӯп маданиятли”, “гомосексуал талабанинг ҳаёти”, “диний ҳаёт”, “ҳалқаро бўлим”, ва “қобилиятсиз талабалар” каби бўлимлари  талабаларга кўмак беради. Ундан ташқари, университетда олтита кутубхона мавжуд. Кутубхоналарда миллионлаб китоблар, журналлар, ва бошқа манбалардан фойдаланиш  мумкин. Кутубхоналарда одатда тарихий кӯргазмалар хам намойиш қилиниб турилади.

Бошқа маълумотлар учун: http://diversity.uchicago.edu/resources/

Университет ва талабаларнинг ҳаёти ҳақида

1890 йилда Америка Баптист Ассоциацияси,  Джон Рокфеллер ва Маршалл Филдлар Чикаго Университетини очишган.  Ҳаммани  тинчлик ва тенгликда бирга ӯқисин деб, аёллар ва эркакларни дунёвий муҳит билан таъминлаган.  1910 йилда лотин тилидаги янги шиор қӯлланилган. Бу, “Чресчат Счиентиа, Вита Ехчолатур” шиори бўлиб, “Ҳаёт равнақи учун билимни ривожлантиринг” деганидир.  Ҳозирги вақтда, Чикаго Университетида 15 минг талаба ӯқийди. Университетда хар қандай фанни ўрганиш имконияти мавжуд.

Чикаго Университети Гарвард, Принстон ва Йел каби университетлар қаторида туради.  Шу сабабли бӯлса керак, yниверситетнинг стандартлари жуда баланд ва талабалар кӯп ӯқиб, изланишади. Шунинг учун хам жиддий академик муҳит туфайли талабаларнинг орасида янгиюмор вужудга келган. Бу “Хурсандчилик Чикаго Университетига ӯлгани келади” деган янги (норасмий) шиоридир.  Шунга қарамай, талабалар одатда ҳафта охирида бирга кинотеатрга ёки барларга боришади. Демак, талабалар вақтларини кўнгилли ӯтказишади. 1910 йилдан буён университет жойлашган Ҳайд Парк  кичик шаҳардан катта шаҳарга айланди.  Ҳозир Ҳайд Паркда кӯп ресторанлар, барлар ва музейлар мавжуд. Университет Чикаго шаҳар марказига ҳам жуда яқин. Университетининг  ёнида бир неча метро бекати мавжуд бўлиб, метро орқали шаҳар марказига 10-15 дақиқали йӯл.